Free Essay

Africas Contribution to the Development of Diplomacy

In: Historical Events

Submitted By dappyboy
Words 1897
Pages 8
Introduction The neglect, for a long time, of African contribution to modern diplomacy, by scholars and the failure to forcefully project the history and image of Africa, exposed the continent to uncharitable, disparaging and judgemental comments by Eurocentric historians who denied African history. However, the notion in certain quarters that Africans were not capable of engaging in any systematic and sophisticated art of diplomacy is to a large extent not true. (Adegbulu, 2011)
Foreign Relations in Global Perspective. Diplomacy is the fundamental means by which foreign relations are conducted and a foreign policy implemented, far from being the invention of capitalism or of the modern nation state, is found in some of the most primitive communities and seems to have evolved independently by peoples in all parts of the world. The basic object of diplomacy is to enable men to live with their neighbours, a feat which requires a measure of accommodation to the interests of others. Above all, they are the questions of peace and war, and then such matters as the conclusion and observance of treatise, the making, maintenance and breaking of alliances, the establishment of boundaries, the development and protection of trade and the payment of tribute. The means by which these are pursued need to be adjusted to changing circumstances, but the employment of accredited agents (diplomatists) to represent and to negotiate on behalf of a state or society seems to be a nearly constant practice. From this, it usually follows that diplomatic forms become established among neighbours and immunities recognized. (Smith, 1989:7)
Diplomacy of state formation in Africa The rise of a state like Asante for example, is an epic requiring the welding together of separate Akan communities and states, into a single political unit. The evolution of its constitution, Ajayi argues, called for high diplomatic skills such as is credited to the genius of the statesman warrior King Osei Tutu, and the magical powers of his divine counsellor, Okomfo Anokye. It called for the use of inherited ideas in the creation of new institutions of inter-state coordination such as the confederal army, the elaboration of the idea of the Golden stool and of ritual usages and traditions of common origin. (Ajayi, 1976:78) There are other numerous examples of state formations, but not all have yet been put together in such detail as the Asante case. However, most state systems in West Africa as in other parts of Africa, meant the bringing together of disparate groups. Perhaps, it is imperative to consider the workings of Yoruba state-system, or the composition of the more diversified Benin imperial structure to realise the diplomatic effort required to keep them together. The remoter periods of the formation of these West African states and empires have not always been studied in depth. This can be attributed to the difficulty of recovering the essential details of diplomatic manoeuvres and procedures from the oral traditions. In the later periods of expansion, the issues of external relations of these imperial systems become clearer. The dealings between the Benin Kingdom and its eastern neighbours, with the Igala, Nupe and Yoruba, or the relations between the Oyo Empire and Dahomey; or of Dahomey with Asante, are easier to identify as issues of diplomatic relationships. Moving northwards in the Sudan belt of West Africa, was an environment where relations became quite complex, and studies of contacts of a trans-continental nature become feasible. In the wake of the trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other commodities, the empires of Ghana, Mali and Songhai maintained relations with North Africa, while Bornu and the Hausa states similarly made contact with the Maghreb. The factor of Islam brought other dimensions of contact. Rulers like Mansa Kankan Musa (1307 -1332) sent diplomatic missions to the Middle East, and his famous pilgrimage was itself a major diplomatic expedition. The introduction of Arabic writing into the Sudan, it has been argued, enabled Songhai to exchange diplomatic letters with Morocco and Kanem Bornu with Tunis, Tripoli and even with the Turkish Emperor at Istanbul.
Cases of Diplomatic Activities The boundary is a key element for defining statehood. African Empires such as Benin, Dahomey, Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Abyssinia had territorial limits and spheres of interest, which were well known. (Otoide, 2001) There was evidence of diplomatic activity in the correspondence of some of the first Christian missionaries who visited the region. As early as the sixteenth century (Circa 1539) three Portuguese friars at Benin, had in a letter to their king, King John III stated that ‘the Oba (king) there had the habit of ill-treating and imprisoning all ambassadors of kings who send messages to him’. The envoys of two coastal states of Adra and Labedde are said to have been accorded this treatment. Another report by some Italian missionaries states how in 1691 relations between Benin and Itsekiri Kingdom of Warri became so strained that ‘they (were) not exchanging ambassadors’ (Adegbulu, 2011) a presupposition that they usually exchanged ambassadors. The ambassadors of Oyo, the most powerful of the Yoruba kingdoms and of Dahomey, featured prominently. In one account, Agaja of Dahomey was said to be in the habit of sending an ambassador to Whydah with a request for ‘an open Traffic to his side’ (Snelgrave, 1734). This same source elsewhere relates how in 1730s Agaja ‘sent Ambassadors with large presents’ of coral, ‘together with one of his most beautiful daughters’ to the Alafin (king) of Oyo. In return, the Alafin sent one of his daughters as a wife for Agaja. However, diplomatic marriages such as these were common phenomena among pre-colonial West Africans. Examples of indigenous diplomacy abound in the nineteenth century West Africa. In the Yoruba country, the Ekiti and Ijesa kings sent emissaries to other monarchs to form the anti-Ibadan coalition of 1878 known as the Ekiti-parapo (Akintoye, 1971:146). The pre-colonial West Africans were also in the practice of maintaining resident representatives abroad. As early as the sixteenth century, Askia (king) of Songhai was said to have some of his courtiers perpetually residing at Kano for the receipt of the tribute due to him from the kingdom (Ajayi and Crowder, 1971:214-15) Pre-colonial African diplomats often carried credentials or badges of office. These credentials could be in form of a fan, a cane, a baton, a whistle or a sword. The Ashante and Dahomean ambassadors were noted for their unique credentials. They were often covered in gold silver leaf and decorated with symbolic emblems (Smith, 1976:23). It is believed that such objects, by extending the power of the ruler beyond his normal reach, were intended to ensure the safe passage of his envoys through alien territory. Some wore specially made diplomatic uniform, such as black caps which according to Bosman, ensured ‘an effectual free pass everywhere’ for the Tie-Ties of the Fonte. The amabassadors of Tegbesu of Dahomey to Bahia in 1750 were said to have been offered Portuguese Clothes by the authorities there, they preferred to appear in their own magnificent garb. Another important aspect of African diplomacy was the immunity which the diplomats enjoyed in the course of their duties. This was so, particularly when the diplomats carried credentials which identified them as state officials representing their sovereigns. Ajisafe’s account on diplomatic immunity in Yoruba land makes this point clear. ‘Embassy between two hostile countries or governments’ according to him, ‘is permissible in native law and the ambassador’s safety is assured; but he must not act as a spy or in a hostile way...’ It has been argued that since the aim of diplomacy is to carry out the policy of a government by means of negotiation, (not ruling out the possibility of war though; since this has been regarded as a continuation of policy (diplomacy) by other means), its achievements are usually expressed on either informal understandings or specific treaties. Examples of secret informal understandings can be found in several African States. In Dahomey for example, this style seems to have reached a high level of efficiency in the nineteenth century. Dalzel reports that King Kpengla’s envoys were able to bring about a war in 1786 between his enemies at ‘New Ardra’ (Ajase) and her former allies the Weme. Similarly, Kpengla a few months later was able to separate the Ajase from their protectors at Oyo. Other treaties were designed to end hostilities between states. The treaty concluded between the Hausa states of Kano and Katsina, C. 1650, for instance, was to end a long series of wars; while the boundary agreement in the late sixteenth century intended to end Idris Alooma’s Kanem Wars – an agreement which has been described as the first written border agreement in the history of the central Sudan. Perhaps some of the notable peace treaties concluded in West Africa were those between Oyo and Dahomey in the eighteenth century. Alliances concluded by the Fante against the Ashanti in the nineteenth century examples, the treaty of Jarapanga in C. 1830 between Ashanti and the defeated Dagomba, and the anti-Ibadan alliance of the second part of the nineteenth century. A rather curious treaty of neutrality is said to have been entered into by the king of Whydah in 1714 with representatives of the French, Portuguese, English and Dutch. The king, by this treaty, refused to be a party to the hostility between the French and other foreign traders visiting his domains. One important feature of treaties in West Africa was their sacrosanct nature. According to Elias, (1956) ‘African customary law shares with customary international law acceptance of the principle of pacta servanda sunt as basis for assurance of a valid world order’. To make the treaties have a binding force, oaths, which were often formidable undertakings, were sworn to. Peaceful coexistence among the African tribes, kingdoms, empires, and city-states naturally promoted peace and welfare; it also helped develop inter-state and inter-tribal relations which later proved to be inevitable for foreign policy and diplomatic relations of Africa from pre-independence to post-independence eras of Africa (Daniel, 2012).

sReferences
Adegbulu, F. (2011) “Pre- colonial West African: Its nature and impact”, The Journal of International Social Research Volume. 4, Issue.18
AJAYI, J. F. A., (1976). “Recent Studies in West African Diplomatic History”, Nigerian Journal of International Affairs, 1/1
Ajayi, J. F. A. & M. Crowder, (1971). History of West Africa, Vol. 1 New York: Columbia university press
Ajisafe, A. K, (1924). The Laws and Customs of the Yoruba People, London: Routledge
Akintoye, S. A, (1971). Revolution and Power Politics in Yorubaland, 1840-1893, London: Longman
Dalzel, A., (1793). The History of Dahomey, An Inland Kingdom of Africa, London
Daniel, D.N, (2012). African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy from Antiquity to the 21st Century. Accessed online at http://www.scribd.com/doc/77199380/African-Foreign-Policy-and-Diplomacy.
Elias, T. O, (1956). The Nature of African Customary Law, Manchester: University Press
Otoide, L.E, (2001) “Re-Thinking the Subject of Africa's International Relations” Voice of History, Vol. XVI, No. 2
SMITH, R. S., (1976). Warfare and Diplomacy in Pre-Colonial West Africa, London: Mathuen and Company Limited
SMITH, R. S, (1989). Warfare and Diplomacy in Pre-Colonial West Africa 2nd edition, Britain: James Currey Ltd
Snelgrave, W, (1734). A New and Accurate of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade, London.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

South Africa a Development and Economic Overview

...South Africa A Development and Economic Overview Introduction I chose South Africa as the topic for this research paper. I have always wanted to visit South Africa but have never had the opportunity to travel there. My involvement in international development has given me an interest in this country, as it has many ties to the developing world and the history of developing countries through colonialism. South Africa is influenced by all levels of economic activity including the primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors which determine if South Africa’s commercial economy. These economic levels, along with the indicators of development, show whether or not South Africa is a developed nation and if so, how developed they are. This paper will present an overview of the economic activities in South Africa and analyze its state of development. Major Economic Activity in South Africa South Africa has a lot of influence throughout multiple levels of economic activity; from primary production to quinary services. Regarding the primary level of economic activity, they have a agriculture sector that covers both subsistence farms and commercial farms. Subsistence farms by definition consume what they produce in order to survive, whereas commercial farms produce a good in excess in order to sell it in a market for the purpose of gaining a profit (Doberstein, 2011). Through the influence of modern innovation and technology, South African farms are......

Words: 2383 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Training and Development and Its Contribution in an Organization

...MZUMBE UNIVERSITY (CHUO KIKUU MZUMBE) PRINCIPAL AND PRACTICE OF HUMAN RESOURCES Course: MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. Instructor: DR. MTEY Name: ALLY MIRROW Mobile: 0717/0756-782834 QUESTION TWO (a) What contribution does training and development provide in the effort to improve performance? (b) Why should managers prefer administering a training needs assessment before embarking on training as a solution to performance problems? TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Concept of Training and Development 2.0 Contribution of Training and Development 2.1 It helps to increase productivity of the employees 2.2 It helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level 2.3 It helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. 2.4 It leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. 2.5 It helps in increasing job satisfaction. 2.6 It helps to greater productivity and quality. 2.7 It helps in improving the morale of the work force 2.8 Lead to the less scrap or spoiled work and less accident. 3.0 Concept of training need assessment 4.0 Why prefer Training need assessment? 4.1 It helps to identify the gap between employees and job requirement 4.2 It enables to find out which employees and group will need training. 4.3 It helps to understand the requirement of the training (Present or future) 4.4 It helps to assess the cost and......

Words: 3493 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Africa Development and Resources Research Institute Journal

...AFRICA DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ADRRI) JOURNAL (www.adrri.org) ISSN: 2343-6662 VOL. I,No.1, pp 16-22,October, 2013 AFRICA DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ADRRI) JOURNAL ADRRI JOURNAL (www.adrri.org) ISSN: 2343-6662 VOL. I,No.1, pp 16-22,October, 2013 Effectiveness of NAIP with special reference to livestock Based IFS interventions among the Tribal beneficiaries Dr. K.L. Dangi* Ramesh Kumar Damor** and Santosh Devi Samota*** * Professor, Department of Extension Education, RCA, Udaipur-313001 (Raj.). India * *& *** Ph.D Schilar, Department of Extension Education, RCA, Udaipur-313001 (Raj.). India Abstract Six year ambitious agricultural research Programme was launched in India on 6th July, 2006, which is known as National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP), the project focused on innovations in agricultural technology. The NAIP was implemented in four districts of southern Rajasthan state viz., Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur. Two clusters of Dungarpur district were selected for the present study. These were (a) Faloj and (b) Bichhiwara. Total 10 villages out of 15 villages (under NAIP) were selected proportionately on random basis for inclusion in the study. Total size of sample was of 104 respondents. It was found that 95 (91.35 per cent) of the farmers were of their face values expressing strengths of NAIP with moderate extent. Negligible respondents 5 (4.81 per cent) and 4 (3.84 per cent) could be observed falling under high...

Words: 1947 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Contributions of Aristotle to the Development of Psychology.

...Aristotle’s psychology is concerned with giving an account of all those activities which are characteristics of living things, puts his theory in sharp contrast to the dualistic conception of the soul by Plato and modern psychology which focuses on conscious and intentional state. Plato, unlike Aristotle had conjectured that man is a composite of soul which is non-physical and a body which is physical. Plato’s psychology has it that the soul pre-existed the body and it continuous to exist at the demise of the body and that the soul has independent existence of the body. Aristotle, bearing the weaknesses of Plato’s psychology in mind, decides to put in his say on psychology. To this end, this essay seeks to examine critically Aristotle’s contribution to psychology. In this attempt, the essay will examine Aristotle’s soul and body relationship, his treatment of the soul from natural science and the fact the soul does not survive the demise of the body. To start with, Aristotle puts forward original interpretation of the relationship between soul and body which is in sharp contrast with Plato’s dualistic view. He defines the soul as the first actuality of a natural body which potentiality has life: a claim which applies to plants, animals and humans alike. Dualism of matter and form, a commitment shared with Plato that entities are identified by their form but, unlike Plato, did not accept a separate real of Ideas or Forms. The form is found in the object. Whilst the form is......

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Demographic Trends and Development in Africa

... A TERM PAPER ON UNDERSTANDING DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN AFRICA BY MADUEJEGBU ESTHER NNEKA MATRIC NUMBER 129086035 COURSE CODE –SOC 807 TITLE- SOCIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT LECTURER: PROF. ADEDOKUN Understanding Demographic Trends Demographic trends reveal developments and changes in human population. More specifically, demographic trends relate to changes in a population’s age, gender, geographical location, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, household income, race, religion, and health. Africa is the second-largest and second most populous continent on earth with an estimated population in 2013 of 1.033 billion people. Africa is home to 54 recognized sovereign states and countries, 9 territories and 2 de facto independent states with very little recognition. Africa's population is not too large in relation to land area, but to reproducible capital, research and educational facilities, the entrepreneurial class, leadership and the available channels of economic diffusion. The UN PopulationFund stated in 2009 that thepopulationof Africa had hit the one billion mark and hadthereforedoubled in size over the course of 27 years. It's now estimated that Africa has a population of 1.033 billion people in 2013. The Population Fund’s Director Thoraya Obeid spoke to the BBC at the time and underlined the reasons behind the growing population. "Africa countries are all growing fast... because there is large number of women who have no access to......

Words: 3018 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Contribution of Western Education to Development in Nigeria

...The contributions of western education to development in Nigeria. If a man is born blind, he may not appreciate what it means to see the light, but ones his sight is recovered he would definitely not want to be thrown back into perpetual darkness. Darkness, blindness or ignorance are terms that could be interchangeably used to describe the state of Nigeria before the advent of western education. No matter how beautiful or promising an environment may be, it would neither be seen nor appreciated in darkness. Light is needed to appreciate anything good, amend anything that is not good enough or throw away anything that is bad outright. Western education came with light appreciating treasures we had with us all the time but never discovered right under the ground. At a time, it was called the ‘black gold’. The discovery of crude oil in Nigeria would not have been possible without our embracing western education. The proceeds from crude oil have in no little way contributed to the development of Nigeria today. With western education came literacy, the ability to read and write which has immensely helped in the acquisition of knowledge and set the foundation for our educational system today. Western education brought with it other dividends of westernization like electricity, pipe-borne water, improved healthcare system, mechanized agriculture with improved yields, the internet making us a part of the global village, GSM technology making communication easier and faster...

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Economic Diplomacy

...Economic Diplomacy – The Case of China and Zambia Marcov Alexandru Cristian Economic Diplomacy – The Case of China and Zambia Introduction Former Indian diplomat, Kishan S Rana defines Economic Diplomacy as “the process through which countries tackle the outside world, to maximize their national gain in all the fields of activity including trade, investment and other forms of economically beneficial exchanges, where they enjoy comparative advantage.; it has bilateral, regional and multilateral dimensions, each of which is important”.[1] China has emphatically registered its presence on the African economic and political landscape in the last decade. Among other things, the volume of trade between China and Africa has risen steadily from USD 10 billion a year in 2000 to over USD 40 billion in 2005, and is projected to cross USD 100 billion by 2010. To celebrate and cement these growing ties, thirty five heads of state from Africa assembled in Beijing at the invitation of the Chinese president Hu Jintao for the inaugural China-Africa Summit (referred to as the Summit henceforth) in November 2006. More than 2000 trade deals were signed in Beijing as China promised USD 5 billion in aid and credit to African countries in the next few years, and vowed to train thousands of its young men and women.[2] Zambia is a land-locked country in Southern Africa with a population of 13 460 305. Zambia’s natural resources include copper, cobalt, zinc, lead...

Words: 2355 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Contributions of the Nile to the Development of Egypt

...on GKE Task 1: Themes in US and World History Vivian White Western Governors University GKE Task 1: Themes in US and World History A. How the Nile contributes to the development of Egypt. The Nile River flows through Egypt on its way to the Mediterranean Sea. One contribution the Nile River has made to the development of Egypt is the nourishing silt it carries. During the flooding season, in July, the silt from flood waters of the Nile fertilizes fields along the banks, promoting crop growth. About a month is required for the fields to dry, before the seeding can begin. The silt-fertilized field will help to ensure a bountiful harvest in the spring. This contributes to Egypt’s development by providing crops for both food and for sales (Orlin, 2010). B. The diffusion of the chariot from Egypt to Assyria The chariot was first invented as a flat moving surface that could hold two people-a fighter and a driver so that during times of war, enemies could be shot at from a distance (Plubins, 2013). In the 18th century, the Egyptians were introduced to chariots when they were invaded by the Hyksos. These chariots were light in weight do to the small stature of the horses of the Hyksos (Orlin, 2010). One hundred fifty years later, when the Egyptians returned to their own rule, they built chariots with four spokes in each wheel. These worked well on flat ground for speed and pursing the enemy (Orlin, 2010). As we move to 900 BCE to 600 BCE, the Assyrians had......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Discuss the Contributions of Iron Technology to the Process of State Formation in Bantu Africa

...Discuss the contributions of iron technology to the process of state formation in Bantu Africa. The spreading of the Bantu all across the sub-Saharan Africa was a major contributor to the advent of a mixture of crops, not to mention the innovation of iron made equipment. The Bantu settlement was heavily dependent on the collection of such crops and changes. This also led the Bantu to have access to a myriad of resources of both high quality and quantity. The ability acquired to create a new form of technology from iron, which had not been done before, was an added bonus to the group. It exponentially increased their productivity in that the Bantu had come up with a way to alleviate their everyday lives through tools they had made from iron. The creation of iron tools made trade for the Bantu with neighboring communities that much easier as they could now trade favorably and profitably with them. The Bantu could get better and improved products from communities with more experience in the production of other commodities such as food. This was only possible due to the advancement that they had made in their iron work. Advancements in the use of iron technology made it possible to eliminate such challenges associated with food preparation, as iron work had given rise to, and inspired clay workers to merge with the iron technology in order to make tools that would make food preparation much easier. Such innovators have been known to have come up with a type of pottery,......

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Democracy in Africa

...of Democracy in Africa With the aid of the book, State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa, I will try to come up with some type of conclusion to the future democracy in Africa. These Africanists that I will mention in my paper have assessed that contemporary Africa has struggled to deal with false starts, unsatisfactory attempts to reconfigure power and varies political reforms. The first theoretical essay is written by Crawford Young on the Third Wave of Democratization in Africa. Young is a Political Scientist, who received a PhD from Harvard and he specializes in development and politics in developing countries, particularly Africa. His works are “The Politics of Cultural Pluralism” , “Ideology and Development in Africa” , and “The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State”. In his essay, Young offers insight on Africa's experimentation on political liberalization. Young starts off by talking about the “third wave” of democratization which hit Africa in 1989 which was seen as a global dynamic. Factors such as modernization, diffusion and power politics helped shaped this transition. In Africa there were deeper structural factors which started first with the economical field. “In dramatic contrast to the aggressive assertion of economic nationalism in the 1970s, a decade peppered with sweeping indigenization programs and widespread nationalism, the 1980 Organization of African Unity Lagos Plan of Action, and the blistering critique of African development ......

Words: 2428 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Learning Points - Technology Transfer & the Development of the Automobile Industry in South Africa

...Exports due to MIDP import-export complementation arrangements (tax set-off policy) d. Increased specialization which is very important in scale-intensive production sectors e. Access to cutting-edge technology for domestic firms through partnership with foreign firms in order to ease access to foreign markets. 2. How the era of heavy protection supported and distracted the technological development in South Africa? a. Demand to make adjustments to the products to adopt them to local needs encouraged the product and process innovations. b. High level of standardization – Atlantis Diesel Engines (ADE). c. The long period of protection enabled the domestic industry to acquire key manufacturing competencies in terms of production experience and quality. d. Heavy government backing in terms of R&D spending and investments. e. Created complex issues on quality standards and supplier capability. f. Negative impact on efficiency. g. Falling behind in terms of innovation makes it difficult to penetrate international market. 3. How the era of liberalization effected the development industry through technology transfer? a. Greater openness leads to expansion of international linkages including greater FDIs. i. The role that foreign links may play in enabling existing local firms upgrade their technology. ii. Impact of increasing internationalization and foreign ownership on the capabilities of domestic industry. b. In seeking to optimize their......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Contribution of Western Education to Nigerias Development

...European Scientific Journal November 2014 edition vol.10, No.31 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 CONTRIBUTIONS OF WESTERN EDUCATION TO THE MAKING OF MODERN NIGERIA DURING AND AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR Dr. Jayeola-Omoyeni, M.S Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria Mr. Omoyeni, J.O. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract What is now known as Nigeria consisted of two distinct geographical, cultural and educational divides in the course of state formation, migration and ethnic development. There existed before 1914, the Northern and Southern protectorates of Nigeria and the Colony of Lagos. The Northern protectorate was predominantly dominated by the Hausa, Fulani and Kanuri speaking people, who had for over a thousand years (7001914) been wrapped with Islamic religion, Koranic Education and Arabic Literacy, and committed to Muslim and Arabic education, tradition and culture. The north rejected the Christian Missionary form of education when it was introduced to the area in 1845 – Graham (1966). The Southern protectorate was predominantly dominated by the Yoruba and Igbo speaking people, who for many centuries had developed along the indigenous form of traditional education and culture, and who barely seventy two years 18421914 imbibed the European form of education regarded as Formal or “Western Education”. The missionaries established mission schools and people became literates in the Roman script. This scenario was......

Words: 5085 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Reasons and Impact of German Diplomacy

...the countries was stable. In these years, Bismarck succeeded to control the European diplomacy in the interest of Germany. At the same time, he was also able to achieve the balance of power among the countries. Some historians looking back also agree that the powers at that time were in fact perfectly balanced that no single one could dominate the other. France feared Germany and Germany feared France. Austria feared Russia and distrusted her in the Balkans. Britain feared Russia in the East and Russia suspected any more intervention by Britain near the Strait of the Black Sea. It was true that no power could have set itself up against the others. It was Bismarck’s contribution that his alliance system so tied up the European powers that none could remove without his permission. With the downfall of Bismarck in 1890 and the ascendancy of Kaiser William II, the German foreign policy changed sharply. It also resulted in a change of the balance of power. The most remarkable change was that Kaiser William II perused a global policy. He desired a place in the sun. In other words, he had an active colonial policy and active navy expansion. This had made Germany engaged into the colonial rivalries, for example, the Franco-German rivalry over Morocco in Africa, which led to the Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911, as well as the Anglo-German rivalry over the Boer Republics in South Africa. In order to protect his overseas colonies, Kaiser William II expanded the navy......

Words: 1436 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pioneers of Modern Architecture: Importance of Their Contribution in the Development of 20th Century Architecture”

...Pioneers of Modern Architecture: Importance of Their Contribution in the Development of 20th Century Architecture” “Pioneers of Modern Architecture: Importance of their contribution in the development of 20th Century Architecture” Modernism roughly spans the time between World War I and the early 1970s. In regards to architecture, this particular movement or style is characterized by simplification of form and subtraction of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. Intrigued by the emerging technologies of the day, they mostly used concrete, glass, or steel in their revolutionary creations. They eschewed ornament, rejecting what they saw as the frivolous strokes of Victorian and art nouveau styles. At the same time new technological developments continued to influence architects' designs, such as the development of complex air conditioning and heating systems allowed modern architectures to spread from the temperate climates of Europe and North America to countries with extremely varied weather conditions such as India, as seen in the National Assembly Building in Dacca Bangladesh by Louis Kahn. Instead of viewing a building as a heavy mass made of ponderous materials, the leading pioneers of modern architecture considered it as a volume of space enclosed by light, thin curtain walls and resting on slender piers. The visual aesthetic of modern architecture was largely inspired by the machine and by abstract painting and sculpture. Since World War II,......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Role of Development Finanace in Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

...explore the role of development finance in economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Development Finance is practice of using scarce financial resources in an unconventional ways in order to advance economic activity(ies). According to (Nyembezi, 2009), development finance makes the economy run smoothly and effectively. The aim of the development finance is to look at the challenges and design the framework as well as stimulating core activities that will develop the economic growth. As stated by (Nyembezi, 2009) development finance, in an economy, can be compared to oil in a vehicle engine that ensures its sound and smooth operation. According to (Ocran, 2012), development finance is concerned with the financing of development at: • Household level • Firm level • Geographical area/national/regional level This paper looks at the role of development finance at national and regional level in economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002) defines development finance officially as funding “used in measuring the inflow of resources to recipient countries: including (a) bilateral official development assistance (ODA), (b) grants and concessional and non-concessional development lending by multilateral financial institutions, and (c) Other Official Flows for development purposes (including refinancing Loans) which have too low a Grant Element to qualify as ODA”. The role of development finance and economic...

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7