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Advanced Technology

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ashley01
Words 919
Pages 4
2G Technology 2G refers to second generation wireless telecommunication technology. While its predecessor, 1G, made use of analog radio signals, 2G uses digital radio signals. Based on what type of multiplexing is employed, 2G technologies may be categorized by whether they are based on time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). Code division multiple access is a digital radio system that transmits streams of bits (PN Sequences). It permits several radios to share the same frequencies. Unlike time division multiple access, all radios can be active all the time, because network capacity does not directly limit the number of active radios. Since larger numbers of phones can be served by smaller numbers of cell-sites, CDMA-based standards have a significant economic advantage over TDMA-based standards. The main 2G TDMA standard is: * GSM (Global System for Mobile communications)--is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM accounts for over 80% of all subscribers around the world. It makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from 1G in that both signaling and speech channels are digital.

The main 2G CDMA standard is:

* IS-95 (Interim Standard 95) is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. The brand name for IS-95 is cdmaOne.

Capacity Since 2G technology uses digital signal between the handsets and the towers, it increases the system capacity in two ways: 1. Digital voice data can be compressed more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codecs, allowing more calls to be packed into the same amount of radio bandwidth.

2. Digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. This meant that cells could be smaller, so more cells could be placed in the same amount of space.

Advantages 2G technology has many advantages over 1G technology such as follows: * The battery life of a 2G handset lasts longer, due to the lower-powered radio signals. * 2G offers additional services such as SMS and e-mail through digital signals * Its lower power emissions also made 2G handsets safer for consumers to use. * Error checking, a feature allowed by digital voice encoding, improved sound quality by reducing dynamic and lowering the noise floor.

3G Technology 3G refers to the third generation of developments in wireless technology, especially mobile communications. 3G is generally considered applicable mainly to mobile wireless; it is also relevant to fixed wireless and portable wireless. 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment.
System Capacity 3G technology provides you with the data transmission speed of up to 2Mbps when you are using the phone in stationary mode. It also provides high degree of connectivity and increased networking and most importantly the resistance to noise. The technology has in fact increased the bit rate thus enabling the service providers to provide high speed internet facilities, increased call volumes and host of the multimedia applications to their customers. In fact, the capability to support circuit and packet data at high bit rates are: * 144 kilobits/second or higher in high mobility (vehicular) traffic * 384 kilobits/second for pedestrian traffic * 2 Megabits/second or higher for indoor traffic

Advantages 3G is an improvement over 2G providing wireless access to the data and information to the users from anywhere and anytime. It offers the potential to keep people connected at all times and in all places. 3G have many advantages over 2G and 1G technology such as follows: * 3G provides you with faster connectivity, faster internet access, and music entertainment with improved quality.

* Downloading games and songs is much faster with this technology.

* Usability on all popular modes (cellular telephone, e-mail, paging, fax, videoconferencing, and Web browsing).
4G Technology 4G technology refers to the fourth generation and provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an anytime, anywhere basis, and at a higher data rates than previous generations. One of the strongest objectives for 4G technology will be to create a system capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors with premium quality, making tasks like video conferencing, VOIP, and music and video downloading much smoother than what is currently available. High security will also be a priority as developers work to create new 4G systems. While a full-scale deployment of 4G is still a ways off - likely in the 2010-2015 range - there are emerging new technologies already being tested and, in some cases, deployed. In conclusion, technology is rapidly advancing from 1G technology generation to now 4G technology generation. Each speed generation is advancing and providing faster speed to access data at a faster rate.

Geek Interview, What is 2G Technology? January 2005-2009. Retrieved on February 2, 2009 from
Federal Communication Commission, Third Generation Wireless. November 2002. Retrieved on February 2, 2009 from
Pappalardo, Denise. What You Need to Know About 4G. Network World, Inc. May 2007. Retrieved on February 2, 2009 from…...

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