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19th Century Philipines

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BEVERLY TIONGSON
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE 19th CENTURY: SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINES
19th CENTURY SPAIN
• Spain during the first three quarters of the 19th century was a country of instability and chaos.
• Conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte, he made his brother Joseph as king.
• Guerilla warfare against the French ensued
• In 1812 a constitution was made by the Liberal Cortes
• Ferdinand VII was restored to power by 1814, he returned to absolute government
• Civil wars broke out between the Liberals and Carlists (supporters of Don Carlos)
• Maria Cristina as regent of her infant daughter Isabella (successor to the throne under the terms of Pragmatic Sanction
• 1868 a revolution against Isabella took place and she was forced to abdicate
• Alfonso XII of Spain became king, which finally brought Spain into a period of stability and reform
19th Century Philippines
Economic Development
• Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade
• Reforms made by Gov. Gen. Jose Basco y Vargas
• Real Compania de Filipinas 1785
• Tobacco Monopoly
• 1830 – growth of export economy from the British and American merchants
• Philippines exported agricultural products resulting to the growth and profit of Filipino hacienderos and inquilinos of the friar haciendas
• Economic Development as a whole is a non-Spanish initiative
• Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869
Social Development
The Native Population
• PRINCIPALIA they are the rich landowners; local gov’t officials
• ILLUSTRADO educated middle-class
• Common People they are the majority of or Masses the class; workers
Political Development
• Spain has no consistent policy for the overseas colonies
• Philippines was used as a dumping ground to reward Spanish officials
• Rampant corruption in the Government
• Governor-general was the chief executive with the widest of powers

Cultural Development
• 1860 spread of education –rise of Ilustrados
• 1859- Ateneo Municipal run by the Jesuits
• 1865- Escuela Normal de Maestros
• Humanistic Education in literature, science and philosophy
• Experience of Filipino students in Spain 19th Century EUROPE
ECONOMY
The new system operated first on textiles, then spread to other sectors and by the mid 19th century totally transformed the British economy and society, setting up sustained growth; it spread to parts of America and Europe and modernized the world economy.
Social
In Victorian times, society was strictly layered - not only into rich and poor, or even upper, middle and lower class, but hundreds of 'grades'. People were expected to 'know their place', and the Church taught them to be content in their 'station'. Dickens did not like the effects of social class.
CULTURE
Church and religion
In Victorian times, Britain was overwhelmingly Christian. The Church dominated religion and the morals of the time.
Family
Family was at the centre of Victorian society. People had large, extended families - although Dickens was aware that not all families were happy families.
POLITICS
The Romantics who studied society through the novel or discoursed about it in essays and pamphlets were no less devoted to this “cause of humanity,” but they arrived at politically different conclusions from Goethe’s and from one another’s. Scott and Disraeli were forerunners of Tory democracy as Burke was of liberal conservatism Factors that contributed to the birth of Filipino Nationalism:
• The opening of the Philippines to the international or world trade.
• The Rise of the middle class.
• The secularization controversy.
• The influx of Liberal ideas from Europe.
• The Opening of the Suez Canal.
• The Martyrdom of Gomburza.…...

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